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Critiques Court Cases Reviews
Empirical Studies NHTSA Materials Studies of Eye Movement/Gaze
Judging Intoxication NHTSA Sponsored Studies Technical Issues

This page provides a list of important articles in a variety of areas relevant to DUI practice. Those marked with an asterisk should be given priority; those with two asterisks are essential. For eye movement and HGN, Rubenzer and Stevenson is the one essential source beyond the NHTSA materials and Citek et al. (2003).


Booker, J. L. (2004). The Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test: Fraudulent science in the American courts. Science & Justice, 44(3), 133-139.

Cohen, H. M. (2002). Field sobriety tests (FSTs). In R. E. Erwin (Ed.). Defense of drunk driving cases, criminal / civil. New York: Matthew Bender & Co., Inc.

Medley, J. M. (2005). Standardized field sobriety exercises: Screening tests for arrest or forensic evidence? Unpublished manuscript.

*Nowaczyk, R. H., & Cole, S. (1995). Separating myth from fact: A review of research on the field sobriety tests. The Champion, 19(7), 40-43.

*Rubenzer, S. J. (2003a). The psychometrics and science of the standardized field sobriety tests, Part 1. The Champion, 27(4), 48-54.

*Rubenzer, S. J. (2003b). The psychometrics and science of the standardized field sobriety tests, Part 2 The Champion, 27(5), 40-44.

Wiesen, J. (2006). DUI presentation at the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers/National College for DUI Defense Seminar.

See also testimony of the experts in US v. Horn 185 F.Supp.2d 530 (D.Md. 2002).

Empirical Studies (non-NHTSA)

*Booker, J. L. (2001). End-position nystagmus as an indictor of ethanol intoxication. Science and Justice, 41(2), 113-116.

*Citek, K., Ball, B., & Rutledge, D. A. (2003). Nystagmus testing in intoxicated individuals. Optometry, 74(11), 695-710.

*Cole, S., & Nowaczyk, R. H. (1994). Field sobriety tests: Are they designed for failure? Perceptual & Motor Skills, 79, 99-104.

Giguire, W. (1983). Impairment caused by moderate blood alcohol levels in a closed course: Preliminary demonstration. In. S. Kaye and G. Meier (Eds.), Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety -T'95 Volume 1, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety (pp. 529-542), Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Transportation.

Goding, G. S., & Dobie, R. (1986). Gaze nystagmus blood alcohol. Laryngoscope, 96, 713-717.

Good, G. W., & Augsburger, C. R. (1986). Use of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus as a part of roadside field sobriety testing. American Journal of Optometry & Physiological Optics, 63(6), 467-471.

*Hlastala, M. P., Polissar, N. L., & Oberman, S. (2005). Statistical evaluation of standardized field sobriety tests. Journal of Forensic Science, 50(3), 1-8.

*Kennedy, R. S., Turnage, J. J., Rugotzke, G. G., & Dunlap, W. P. (1994). Indexing cognitive tests to alcohol dosage and comparison to standardized field sobriety tests. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55, 615-628.

Lehti, H. M. J. (1976). The effect of blood alcohol concentration on the onset of gaze nystagmus. Blutalkohol, 13, 411-414.

*McKnight, A. J., Lange, J. E., & McKnight, A. S. (1999). Development of a standardized boating sobriety test. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31(1-2), 147-152.

Norris, J. (1985). The correlation of angle of on set of nystagmus with blood alcohol level: Report of a field trial. California Ass'n Criminalistics Newsletter 21 (June).

*Perrine, M. W., Foss, R. D., Meyers, A. R., Voas, R. B., & Velez, C. (1993). Field sobriety tests: Reliability and validity. In H.-D. Utzelmann, G. Berghaus and G. Kroj (Eds.). Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety (pp. 1133-1138). Cologne : Verlag TUV Rheinland.

Richman, J. E., & Jakobowski, J. (1994). The competency and accuracy of police academy recruits in the use of the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test for detecting alcohol impairment. New England Journal of Optometry, 47(1), 5-8.

*Streff, F. M, Geller, E. S., & Russ, N. W. (1989). Evaluation of field sobriety tests for use by social hosts. In B. Perrine (Ed.), Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety (pp. 450-455), Chicago, IL, National Safety Council.

Judging Intoxication

Brick, J., & Carpenter, J. A. (2001). The identification of alcohol intoxication by police. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25(6), 850-855.

Langenbucher, J., & Nathan, P. E. (1983). Psychology, public policy, and the evidence for alcohol intoxication. American Psychologist, 38(10), 1070-1077.

*McKnight A. J., Langston, E. A., Marques, P. R., & Tippetts, A. S. (1997). Estimating blood alcohol from observable signs. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29(2), 247-255.

*McKnight, A. J., Langston, E. A., McKnight, A. S., & Lange, J. E. (2002). Sobriety tests for low alcohol blood concentrations. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 34(3), 305-311.

Pagano, M. R., & Taylor, S. P. (1979). Police perceptions of alcohol intoxication. Journal of Applied Psychology, 10(2), 166-174.


Rubenzer, S. J. (2010/2011). Judging intoxication. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 29(1), 116137. Published on-line May 21, 2010.

Sullivan, J. B., Hauptman, M., & Bronstein, A. C. (1987). Lack of observable intoxication in humans with high plasma alcohol concentrations. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 32(6), 1660-1665.

*Teplin, L. A., & Lutz, G. W. (1985). Measuring alcohol intoxication: The development, reliability, and validity of an observational instrument. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 48(6), 459-466.

Major Court Cases

State v. Dahood, #96-JT-707 (Concorde District Court, April 2002a).

State v. Dahood, 814 A.2d 159 (N.H. 2002b).

State v. Homan, 89 Ohio St.3d 421, 732 N.E.2d 952 (2000).

*U.S. v. Horn, 185 F.Supp.2d 530 (D.Md. 2002).

State v. Meador, 674 So.2d 826 (Fla.App 4 Dist. 1996).

State v. Superior Court, 149 Ariz. 269, 718 P.2d 171 (1986).

State v. Witte, 251 Kan. 313, 836 P.2d 1110 (1992).

NHTSA and Prosecution Materials

*American Prosecutors Research Institute (1999). Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus - The science and the law: A resource guide for judges, prosecutors, and law enforcement. Alexandria, Virginia: Author.

American Prosecutors Research Institute (2003). Admissibility of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus evidence: Targeting hardcore impaired drivers. Alexandria, Virginia: Author.

*National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Dept. of Transportation (1984/2006). DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing, Participant Manual (HS 178 R2/00).

NHTSA Sponsored Studies

Anderson , T., Schwartz, R., & Snyder, M. (1983). Field evaluation of a behavioral test battery for DWI. (DOT HS-806-475) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

*Burns, M., & Anderson, E. W. (1995). A Colorado validation study of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST) battery. (Final Report to the Colorado DOT) Los Angeles, CA: Southern California Research Institute; Aspen CO: Pitkin County Sheriff's Office.

*Burns, M., & Dioquino, T. (1997). A Florida validation study of the standardized field sobriety test (SFST) battery. Jacksonville, FL: Florida Department of Health.

*Burns, M., & Moskowitz, H. (1977). Psychophysiological tests for DWI arrest, final report. DOT-HS-802-424.

Compton, R. P. (1985). Pilot test of selected DWI detection procedures for use at sobriety checkpoints. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT-HS-806-724.

*McKnight, A. J., Langston, E. A., McKnight, A. S., & Lange, J. E. (2002). Sobriety tests for low alcohol blood concentrations. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 34(3), 305-311.

*Stuster, J., & Burns, M. (1998). Validation of the Standardized Field Sobriety Test battery at BACs below .10 percent. (DOT-HS-808-839) Washingt on, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Sussman, E. D., Needalman, A., & Mengert, P. H. (1990). An experimental evaluation of a field sobriety test battery in the marine environment. (Report prepared under Contract no. DOT-CG-D - 04-90). Washington, DC: US Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard.

*Tharp, V., Burns, M., & Moskowitz, H. (1981). Development and field test of psychophysical tests for DWI arrest. (DOT-HS-805-864) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.


*Busloff, S. E. (1993). Can your eyes be used against you? The use of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus in the courtroom. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 84(1), 203-238.

*Honts, C. R., & Amato-Henderson, S. L. (1995). Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test: The state of the science in 1995. North Dakota Law Review, 71, 671-700.

*Meaney, R. (1996). Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus: A closer look. Jurimetrics Journal 36, 383-407.

**Rubenzer, S. J. (2007/2008). The Standardized Field Sobriety Tests: A Review of scientific and legal issues. Law and Human Behavior,32(4), 293-313. DOI: 10.1007/s10979-007-9111- y.

Studies of Eye Movement / Gaze

Abel LA, Parker L, Daroff RB, Dell'Osso LF. End-point nystagmus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1978 Jun;17:539-44.

*Aschan (1958). Different types of alcohol nystagmus. Acta oto-laryngologica, 140, 169-178.

Baloh RW, Kumley WE, Sills AW, Honrubia V, Konrad HR. Quantitative measurement of smooth pursuit eye movements. Ann Otol Rhino Laryngol 1976 Jan-Feb; 85(1 Pt 1): 111-9.

*Bertolli ER, Forkiotis J, Pannone DR, Dawkins H. A behavioral optometry/vision science perspective on the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus exam for DUI enforcement. Forensic Examiner 2007 Spr;26-33.

Buizza A, Schmid R. Velocity characteristics of smooth pursuit eye movements to different patterns of target motion. Exp Brain Res 1986;63(2):395-401.

*Burns M. The robustness of the horizontal gaze nystagmus test. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; September, 2007. Technical Report.

*Citek, K. Visual function, drugs, and field sobriety tests. In: M. Burns, editor. Medico-Legal aspects of drugs, 2 nd ed. Tucson, AZ : Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company, Inc., 2007; 203-19.

*Collewijn H, Tamminga EP. Human smooth and saccadic eye movements during voluntary pursuit of different target motions on different backgrounds. J Physiol 1984 Jun;351:217–50.

*Ettinger U, Kumari V, Crawford TJ, Davis RE, Sharma T, Corr PJ. Reliability of smooth pursuit, fixation, and saccadic eye movements. Psychophysiology 2003;40:620-8.

*Ettinger U, Kumari V, Crawford TJ, Flak V, Sharma T, Davis RE, et al. Saccadic eye movements, schizotypy, and the role of neuroticism. Biol Psychology 2005;68:61-78.

*Godde-Jolly D, Ruelalan YU–M, Hudelo J. Nystagmus du regard extreme. Rev Otoneuroophtal 1970;42:44-56. (original in French; translation available up on request).

*Hartje W, Steinhaüser D, Kerschensteiner, M. Diagnostic value of saccadic pursuit eye movement in screening for organic cerebral dysfunction. J Neurol 1978 Dec; 217(4): 253-60.

*Hutton SB, Tegally D. The effects of dividing attention on smooth pursuit eye tracking. Exp Brain Res 2005 Jun;163(3):306-13.

Kobatake K, Yoshii F, Shinohara Y, Nomura, K, Takagi S. Impairment of smooth pursuit eye movements in chronic alcoholics. Eur Neurol 1983;22(6):392-6

Moser A, Heide W, Kömpf D. The effect of oral ethanol consumption on eye movements in healthy volunteers. J Neurol 1998 Aug;245(8):542-50.

*Mundt JC, Perrine MW, Searles JS. Individual difference in alcohol responsivity: Physiological, psychomotor, and subjective response domains. J Stud Alcohol 1997;58(2):130-40.

Munez DP, Armstrong IT, Hampton KA, Moore KD. Alerted control of visual fixation and saccadic eye movement in attention -deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Neurophysiology 2003;90:503-14.

*Robinson DA. Eye movement control in primates: the oculomotor system contains specialized subsystems for acquiring and tracking visual targets. Science 1968 Sep;161(847):1219-24.

Roy-Byrne P, Radant A, Wingers on D, Cowley DS. Human oculomotor function: Reliability and diurnal variation. Biol Psychiatry 1995 Jul;38(2):92-7.

**Rubenzer SJ, Stevenson SB. Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus: A review of vision science and application issues. J Forensic Sci 2010 Mar;55(2):394-409.

*Schalen L. Quantification of tracking eye movements in normal subjects. Acta Otolaryngol 1980 Nov-Dec;90(6):404-13.

*Shallo-Hoffman J, Schwarze H, Mühlendyck H. A reexamination of end-point and rebound nystagmus in normals. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1990 Feb; 31(2):388-92.

*Sharpe JA, Sylvester TO. Effect of aging on horizontal smooth pursuit. Invest Opthalmol Vis Sci 1978;17:465-8.

Thaker GK, Ellsberry R, Moran M, Lahti A, Tamminga C. Tobacco smoking increases square-wave jerks during pursuit eye movements. Biol Psychiatry 1991 Jan;29(1):82-8.

*Westheimer G. Eye-movement response to a horizontally moving visual stimulus. AMA Arch Opththal 1954;52:932-41.

Technical Issues

*Rubenzer, S. J. (2006). Understanding SFSTs accuracy rates, error rates, and reliability. The Forum (publication of the California Attorneys for Criminal Justice), 33(3), 31-37.